"The photographs of Russian chemist and photographer, Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii, show Russia on the eve of World War I and the coming of the revolution. From 1909-1912 and again in 1915, Prokudin-Gorskii travelled across the Russian Empire, documenting life, landscapes and the work of Russain people. His images were to be a photographic survey of the time. He travelled in a special train car transformed into a dark room to process his special process of creating color images, a technology that was in its infancy in the early 1900’s. Prokudin-Gorskii left Russia in 1918, after the Russian Revolution had destroyed the Empire he spent years documenting"
(Text taken from the Denver Post).
Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii well can possibly be the father of colour photography.
He actually developed this technique to project colour photography that resembles the way Photoshop manages them.
The images where captured in black and white glass plates negatives using Red, Green and Blue filters. When this image composed of three slides was done, it would be projected into a surface using a device that would project each colour on each slide, creating an instant composite of the three colours together when projected in the surface....
If I´m not explaining myself properly (!), visit here to see the process.